The recommended rate of PLT will vary based on litter age, litter quality, previous litter management, floor moisture, and ammonia flux. Read this article to understand how sufficient application rates are determined.
The general guidelines on the PLT Product Data Sheet recommends the following:
- Broiler litter: 1 year old or less – 75-100-lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
- Broiler litter: Older than 1 year – 100-150-lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
- Windrowed litter – 150+ lbs. / 1,000 sq. ft. of floor space
No, PLT does not require heat to activate and can be applied on a cold floor. Just like all litter amendments, the product will start reacting with ammonia as soon as it is applied. If PLT is applied before floor temperature reaches 85 degrees, the product will be consumed by the ammonia purge leaving very little to control ammonia during the rest of the brooding period. PLT is hygroscopic and does require moisture to activate.
Yes. The main ingredient in PLT is also classified as a feed additive.
The PLT cloud is seen if the house is not properly purged of ammonia prior to application. It is a non-toxic fog that forms when PLT reacts with ammonia gas in the environment. If the cloud is heavy and dense, you will lose significant amounts of longevity of PLT. Consult the PLT Product Data Sheet for proper application procedures.
Yes. PLT is the only litter amendment that can be safely applied or reapplied after birds are present in the house. This can be done anytime during the grow-out.
The activity of PLT can and will be directly impacted by the relative humidity percentage (RH %) in the house. The ideal RH % range for baby chicks as well as PLT is the same— between 50% to 70% If the RH % is below 50% the PLT reacts very slowly with the ammonia releasing from the floor. RH % below 50% also contributes to dehydration of baby chicks.
On the other hand, if the RH % is above 70%, the opposite will happen. The extra moisture will cause the PLT to activate too quickly, decreasing the longevity of ammonia control.
PLT improves paw quality. Ammonia in the damp areas of the litter is corrosive to the skin and causes Foot Pad Dermatitis development. When PLT is applied and the ammonia in the damp areas is neutralized, paw lesions are significantly reduced. Remember, it is OK to re-apply PLT in wet areas during the flock to reduce ammonia damage to the paws.
Because PLT and most litter amendments are hygroscopic, meaning they start to activate immediately upon application. When PLT is applied this far in advance, it will activate with the large amount of ammonia that comes off the floor during pre-heating. This wastes the PLT that was applied and leaves little product available to bind ammonia once the chicks or poults arrive.
The two drivers of ammonia release from the litter are temperature and surface area. When heat is applied to the litter to prepare for bird placement, the increased temperature drives ammonia from the floor into the air. From a bird performance aspect, it is critical that the ammonia purge caused by pre-heating take place prior to PLT application and bird placement to increase the longevity of ammonia control well into the brooding period.
Yes. When it is time to move birds down, a 24 hour preheat period is usually standard procedure. Unfortunately, just as ammonia purged in the brood chamber at pre-placement, the ammonia will purge off the off chamber floor once the floor reaches 80-85 degrees. This can occur as late as 36-48 hours post move down. The ammonia purge during this time will have significant impact on the performance of the birds causing a loss of weight and feed conversion. By applying PLT one (1) hour prior to move down, it will drastically reduce ammonia challenge, help birds migrate faster, and minimize vaccination stress thus increasing your bottom line.
No. If you spray the floor with water, you will create a wet surface area that will chill baby birds.
pH is the measure of the concentration of the hydrogen ions in solution. The greater the concentration of hydrogen ions, the lower the pH. Most broiler litter has a pH of 7.5-8.5 prior to PLT application. Once PLT is applied, the surface pH can drop to 1.8-2.0 making the surface of the litter acidic. This is what neutralizes the ammonia being released from the litter surface.
The ideal litter depth for a typical broiler production should be about 6 inches. Less litter depth will cause the loss of insulating value of the litter and will reduce absorptive capacity. This will cause more fuel usage and it will be harder for the birds to maintain body temperature during brooding. When litter depth gets over 10 inches it becomes harder to manage the moisture, beetles and ammonia flux creating a harsh environment for the flocks.
There are a lot of different opinions on this within the industry today. It is our opinion that built up litter /manure can be successfully utilized for about 24-36 months at the most. After that, manure loads become so high that ammonia release is exaggerated. Growers can either clean-out or strip the litter from the sidewalls to reduce the manure load.
Moisture in the litter is a necessary contributor to relative humidity inside a poultry house. When litter is pre-heated, moisture is released from the litter contributing to proper relative humidity in the house. When litter is too dry and fine, it is difficult to reach proper relative humidity levels of 50-70% causing dehydration of birds. When litter is too wet, caking occurs easily and ammonia levels can be high later on.
No. The most corrosive substance in the poultry house is ammonia.
Wet spots are a sign of proper PLT activation. PLT is hygroscopic and the wet spots indicate that product is melting and activating properly.
We all become desensitized to ammonia fairly quick after starting a poultry operation. It is not uncommon for producers, service techs and other company management to not be able to detect ammonia levels high as 80-100ppm. Just because you don’t smell it doesn’t mean you don’t have damaging amounts of ammonia at bird level. Remember that birds are closer to the source of ammonia.
PLT allows a poultry house to be ventilated for relative humidity during brooding rather than needing to be over-ventilated for ammonia removal.
One of two things occurred, both resulting in insufficient amounts of PLT left in the house by the time the birds arrived. Using a rate of PLT that is too low for your litter age and ammonia challenge will result in all of the PLT being exhausted before birds arrive. Also, applying PLT prior to the ammonia purge that occurs during pre-heating can bind all of the PLT that was applied in the pre-heating process leaving no PLT in the house when the birds arrive. Following proper application procedures of PLT will prevent this from happening the next flock.
PLT binds the ammonia in the house converting it into ammonium sulfate. For every 100-lbs of PLT applied, 54-lbs ammonium sulfate is formed. This nitrogen is plant available after land application.
The major ingredient in PLT is sodium bisulfate which is used in both human and animal foods. Sodium bisulfate is included in the class of compounds know as acid salts. Compared to other acid salts, Sodium Bisulfate is one of the lowest cost and safest available. It is considered non-hazardous by DOT, therefore not regulated. OSHA identifies it as an irritant and the NFPA hazard rating is 1-0-1, very low compared to other acids. If it is spilled it can be swept up, avoiding the environmental headaches associated with liquid acids.
This quickly removes the ammonia released from the litter during pre-heating. Removing this large amount of ammonia from the pre-heating process will allow the PLT being applied to be reserved for when the birds arrive. Not removing this ammonia can results in a 3-4 day loss of PLT longevity.
Cipher should be handled just like salt. Care should be taken to keep the product dry and equipment should be flushed with grain or meal. The product may be added to the mixer by hand, micro machine or through the minor ingredient scale.
Broilers – 4-8 lbs./ton of feed in all rations
Turkeys – 6 lbs./ton of feed in all rations
Research has shown a rate of 4-8 lbs./ton of feed provides the greatest return for the first 28-30 days in broilers. Cipher is recommended for use throughout the grow-out for biological challenges and ammonia control in Cornish hens, small or large birds. A rate of up to 6 lbs./ton through 12 weeks is recommended for turkey toms or hens.
Yes, Cipher is considered a natural product and is recognized as GRAS.
Economic analysis of dairy cow foot health has estimated that lameness can result in a 30% loss in milk production returns per cow. Use of ParlorPal in footbaths costs only pennies per cow.
Many of the products used in footbaths are selected from “customary practices”. Copper sulfate and zinc sulfate are not labeled for footbath application – they have become widely used because no effective alternative products were available, until now.
ParlorPal has been used in Western U. S. dairies for over 8 years. ParlorPal is manufactured in our plant in Walbridge, Ohio to ISO 9000 quality standards to assure composition and content. ParlorPal is classified as non-hazardous and is used in animal feeds and for human consumption. University trials have confirmed the safety of ParlorPal used as a footbath or in bedding applications.
“ACS” is a blend of copper sulfate and citric acid, a weak carbon-chain acid. The “citric acid-copper” product cannot maintain footbath pH at critical levels. Also, heavy metals (copper or zinc) can still accumulate in your lagoon.
The major component in ParlorPal is composed of sodium, hydrogen and sulfur (no heavy metals).
Copper sulfate’s cost varies greatly as does availability. Depending on current pricing for copper sulfate, ParlorPal may cost only 1/3 as much.
Two factors determine how much LS-PWT2® is needed on a given farm: end-use of LS-PWT2® (crop acidification or chlorine management) and characteristics of the water source (pH and alkalinity). Refer to the rate chart for the appropriate amount in each situation.
The pH of the drinking water should not go below a pH of 3.0.
Yes. Alkalinity is a measure of the carbonates in a water source that will bind to the LS-PWT2® or any water acidifier. Only after all of the carbonates in the water are bound by the LS-PWT2® will the pH begin to drop. The higher the alkalinity of a water source, the more LS-PWT2® or any other acid will be needed to reach the target pH.
LS-PWT2® is a strong, mineral acid while citric acid and vinegar are weak organic acids. LS-PWT2® has a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds while organic acids such as citric acid taste bitter causing birds to reduce water consumption.
LS-PWT2® should be run for the first 7-10 days the birds are placed in the house, around feed changes, and prior to processing. More information about usage for different types of birds can be found here.
pH is the measure of the number of hydrogen ions in solution. The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the lower the pH will be.
Yes, if it is acidified with a mineral acid such as LS-PWT2®. Because mineral acids easily donate hydrogen ions into a solution, they have a low addition rate and a pleasing taste to birds.
If you have never used LS-PWT2® before, it is recommended to use it for the first time while the house is empty. Because LS-PWT2® cleans the water lines so thoroughly, dislodging lots of biofilm and residual material in the lines, a high pressure flush is needed to remove that debris from the water lines. Using LS-PWT2® with birds in the house for the first time will make it difficult to remove all of the debris dislodged by the cleaning process possibly causing clogged nipples and birds to ingest the dirty material.
A sample of the water can be taken either at the well or at the entrance to the house. A pool test kit or test strips can be used to determine the pH and alkalinity of the water source. Once that is known, use the chart below to determine addition rate.
No. Unlike antibiotics and other water additives, LS-PWT2® is very stable when mixed. A stock solution of LS-PWT2® will maintain its potency for at least 30 days.
No. It is the debris being dislodged from the dirty drinker system that could possible clog the lines if it isn’t flushed out promptly and thoroughly.
The first time you use LS-PWT2® in a house for cleaning, it should only be left in the lines about 8 hours due to the large amounts of debris that is removed during the cleaning process. This will facilitate the removal of this gelatinous material from the drinker system. After LS-PWT2® has been used to clean the drinker system, then it can be left in the lines as long as 24 hours prior to flushing.
At the end of every flock and after running any type of water additive such as electrolytes or vitamins.
Yes. This will remove any residual material from the water additives that can be a food source for bacteria.
Yes. LS-PWT2® is approved by the FDA as an animal feed additive.